Hindi Grammar - 1 - Vowels and Consonants

Vowels: Letters which represent a simple vocal sound are called vowels. (Svar)
अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ए ऐ ओ औ अं अः ऋ are vowels in Hindi

Consonants: The letter which can be sounded only with a vowel are called consonants. (Vyanjan)
क ख ग घ ङ च छ ज झ ञ त थ द ध न ट ठ ड ढ ण प फ ब भ म य र ल व स श ष ह क्ष त्र ज्ञ  are consonants in Hindi


Hindi Alphabets (Varnamala)

अ A as in About

आ AA as in Barn

इ eI as in Miss

ई Ee as in Deep

उ U as in Put

ऊ Oo as in Moon

ए Yea as in Make

ऐ yeA as in Bangle

ओ O as in Mode

औ Ou as in Out

अं Um as in  Umbrella

अः Aha as in Ahead

ऋ Ri like in Drip, rhythm, there is no direct equivalent sound in any other language and is pronounced somewhere between ri and ru, like crystal.

ॠ  Conjugated sound of ‘r’ and ‘rhy’ as above

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Some Special Characters that might appear. mostly used in Sanskrit Verses.

ऑ          As ‘a’ in ball (the symbol on the top is called "Chandra Bindu")

ऍ            As ‘ai’ in main

ऌ            it is ल + ृ = ऌ (maathra) pronounced as "LRU" is pronounced somewhere between li and lu, similar to glycerine (NOT USED NOWADAYS)

ॡ            pronounced as LRR (NOT USED NOWADAYS)

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gutterals

क Ka - as is Token Kite

ख  Kha - aspirated K sinkhole

ग ga - as in go.

घ Gh -  as in Ghost

ङ nga -  as in sing, gnome etc. Used only in Sanskrit loan words, does not occur independently. Does not produce a particular sound: Just used for articulation of tongue while pronouncing the next word

Palatals

च cha - as in church, chair

छ chcha - as in pinchhit. This sound is not available exactly in English. The tongue touches a bit away (to the inner side) from the teeth while pronouncing ‘ch’ as in chair.

ज  ja - As ‘j’ in jug, jump

झ Jha - as in dodge her. This sound is not available in English. The is produced using the naval sounds while the tongue touches the upper part of mouth cavity.

ञ gna - as in canyon. Used only in Sanskrit loan words, does not occur independently. Just like ‘gn’ of gnome with a slight up movement of tongue. No particular sound just articulation while speaking.

Dentals


त  tha - Soft sound of ‘t’ as used in the name of country Bharat, does not exist in English. more dental t, with a bit of a th sound. Softer than an English t.

थ  ththa - aspirated version of the previous letter, not as in thanks or thermo

द dha - as ‘th’ in the

ध Dha - Not available in English. Again, naval sound produced by coupling soft ‘d’ and ‘h’= ‘dh’.

न na -As ‘n’ in man

Cerebrals

ट Ta - As ‘t’ in top, tick

ठ Tta - as in lighthouse. Retroflex

ड da - as in doom. As ‘d’ in dark, Retroflex

ढ Da - Coupled sound of ‘d’ and ‘h’= ‘dh’. as in mudhut. Retroflex, Not available in English but as ‘dh’ in Indian musical instrument ‘dhol’.

ण  NA  Nasal sound when the tongue touches a bit away from teeth. In न, the tongue touches the roots of the teeth.  as in indian word -- pandit)

Labials


प pa - As ‘p’ in push

फ fa - Sound of ‘f’ if pronounced with closed lips.as in Fun

ब ba - as in be.

भ bha - as in abhor.

म ma - as in mere.

Semivowels

य ya - as in yet.

र ra - As ‘r’ in run

ल la -as in love

व va -  between English v and w, but without the lip rounding of an English w As ‘v’ in vowel

Sibilants

स sa - As ‘s’ in sound

श sha - As ‘sh’ in shot

ष  sha  - sharp  Sound of ‘sh’ when the tongue touches the roots of the teeth. In श, the tongue touches the upper part of mouth cavity.slightly more aspirated. Used only in Sanskrit loan words

Aspirate

ह ha - As ‘h’ in has

क्ष ksha - Coupled sound of ‘k’, ‘s’, ‘h’= ‘ksh’. A bit similar to ‘x’

त्र  thra -- Coupled sound of soft ‘t’ and ‘r’= ‘tr’.

ज्ञ jna - Coupled sound of ‘j’ and ‘n’= ‘jn’


Variations of consonants in Hindi Alphabet

क़            Sound of ‘k’ produced from the throat: equal to ‘q’ of English.
ख़            Sound of ‘kh’ produced from the throat. As ‘kh’ used in the name of ‘khan’.
ग़            Sound of ‘g’ produced from the throat.
ज़            As ‘z’ in zebra
ड़            Next variation of ‘d’. Not available in English and very difficult to produce for foreigners. As ‘re’ in Crore.
ढ़            Not available in English. Next variation of coupled sound of ‘dh’.
फ़            As ‘f’ in fast. As ‘v’ in German language
ळ            Sound of ‘l’ when the tongue almost touches the throat.


Symbols used in Hindi Alphabet

ँ             Sound of ‘n’ with the previous consonant along with some other symbols used for that consonant
ं             Sound of ‘m’ with the previous consonant
ः            Sound of ‘h’ with the previous consonant
ा            Sound of stressed ‘a’ with the previous consonant
ि            Sound of ‘i’ as in ill with the previous consonant
ी            Sound of ‘e’ as in eke with the previous consonant
ु             Sound of ‘u’ as in Ubuntu with the previous consonant
ू             Sound of ‘ou’ as in you with the previous consonant
ृ             Sound of ‘rhy’ as in rhythm with the previous consonant
ॄ             Double sound of ‘rhy’ as in rhythm with the previous consonant
ॅ             Used for transliteration. Giving the up sound to the symbol used.
े             Sound of ‘ai’ as in aim with the previous consonant
ै             Sound of ‘a’ as in as with the previous consonant
ॉ            Sound of ‘a’ as in ball with the previous consonant
ो            Sound of ‘o’ as in go with the previous consonant
ौ            Stressed sound of ‘o’
्             Halant. This is used to make the consonant half making it disjointed from the sound of अ.
।             Symbol of ‘.’ Full stop in English.





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1 comments:

Jaleela said...

அருமையான விளக்கம்,

எப்படி இப்படி தெளிவாக, ஹிந்தியில் ரொம்ப நல்ல பதிவுகள்.